Group discussion shifts the weight of evidence as each group member expresses their arguments, shedding light onto a number of different positions and ideas. Thus, on decisions in which group members have, on the average, a moderate proclivity in a given direction, group discussion results in a more extreme average proclivity in the same direction. Indicated by shifts in the mean value, initial studies using this method revealed that group decisions tended to be relatively riskier than those that were made by individuals. Moreover, computer-mediated discussions often fail to result in a group consensus, or lead to less satisfaction with the consensus that was reached, compared to groups operating in a natural environment. These more extreme decisions are towards greater risk if individuals' initial tendencies are to be risky and towards greater caution if individuals' initial tendencies are to be cautious. Group polarization has been reported to occur during wartime and other times of conflict and helps to account partially for violent behavior and conflict. Individual responsibility and group decisions involving risk. Researchers have identified an increase in affective polarization among the United States electorate, and report that hostility and discrimination towards the opposing political party has increased dramatically over time. The process of characterizing a social polarization index using extensions of the axioms presented in DER to the multi-group case is not straight-forward. ____The chances are 3 in 10 that the company will prove financially sound. 2020; (ISSN: 1091 ... Neurons were polarization sensitive in large parts of the virtual sky that in some cells extended to the horizon in all directions. When "group polarization" occurs, what is the result? In doing so, individuals support the group's beliefs while still presenting themselves as admirable group "leaders".  Similar to the social media platforms, video streaming platforms like YouTube are forming groups unconsciously through intelligent algorithm seeking for extreme contents. ____The chances are 5 in 10 that the company will prove financially sound.  Owing to this technology, it is possible for individuals to curate their sources of information and the opinions to which they are exposed, thereby reinforcing and strengthening their own views while effectively avoiding information and perspectives with which they disagree. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. This research was pioneered by James A. F. Stoner (1961), who first found the tendency in groups who were considering risk-taking behaviors; the phenomenon was thus initially labeled "risky shift." This phenomenon was originally coined risky shift but was found to apply to more than risk, … A defining aspect of polarization, though not its only facet, is a bimodal distribution around conflicting points of view or philosophies. Later, they would be asked to join a group to reassess their choices. Group polarization refers to attitude change on the individual level due to the influence of the group, and choice shift refers to the outcome of that attitude change; namely, the difference between the average group members' pre-group discussion attitudes and the outcome of the group decision.. Support for the self-categorization theory, which explains group polarization as conformity to a polarized norm, was found by Hogg, Turner, and Davidson in 1990. An empirical test of the referent informational influence analysis of group polarization is reported. On a smaller scale, group polarization can also be seen in the everyday lives of students in higher education. Results support the conflict‐group polarization model and indicate that out‐group polarization has the most powerful effect on both gendered family role attitudes and policy attitudes for men and women. Later, both the pro- and anti-capital punishment people were put into small groups and shown one of two cards, each containing a statement about the results of a research project written on it. In‐group polarization does not affect gender attitudes, however. Group difference in polarization score, according to overall level of emotional intensity (panel A) and emotional intensity of the most emotionally intense comment (panel B). , Group polarization and choice shifts are similar in many ways; however, they differ in one distinct way.  These results should be understood in the context of several problems in the implementation of the study, including the fact the researchers changed the scaling of the outcome of the variable, so measuring attitude change was impossible, and measured polarization using a subjective assessment of attitude change and not a direct measure of how much change had occurred. These theories for group polarization can be broken down further into two main categories: normative influence and informative influence. The phenomenon has shown that after participating in a discussion group, members tend to advocate more extreme positions and call for riskier courses of action than individuals who did not participate in any such discussion. More so, situations that normally favor the cautious alternative increased cautious shifts. Also, Moscovici et al. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 68, 1014-1029. Value polarization in 1992 does not, however, predict polarized affective reactions to the major party presidential candidates in 1996. While attending a convention, Mr. A is offered a job with a small, newly founded company which has a highly uncertain future. ____The chances are 9 in 10 that the company will prove financially sound. Group polarization Group identification r=.40, p<.0001 H1 supported Group identification Individuating information a F= 17.04, p<.0001 H2a supported b Group polarization Individuating information F= 7.30, p<.01 H2b supported c Perceived argument quality Group identification r=.32, p<.0001 H3 supported Group polarization The theory holds that people first compare their own ideas with those held by the rest of the group; they observe and evaluate what the group values and prefers. Group polarization is the usual pattern with deliberating groups, having been found in hundreds of studies involving more than a dozen countries, including the United States, France, and Germany. Participants were then asked to estimate the probability that a certain choice would be of benefit or risk to the individual being discussed. This measure required participants to consider a hypothetical scenario in which an individual is faced with a dilemma and must make a choice to resolve the issue at hand. In social psychology, group polarization refers to the tendency for a group to make decisions that are more extreme than the initial inclination of its members. Self-categorization theory stems from social identity theory, which holds that conformity stems from psychological processes; that is, being a member of a group is defined as the subjective perception of the self as a member of a specific category. These more extreme decisions are towards greater risk if individuals' initial tendencies are to be risky and towards greater caution if individuals' initial tendencies are to be cautious. Subsequently, a decade-long period of examination of the applicability of group polarization to a number of fields in both lab and field settings began. [clarification needed] Stoner (1968) found that a decision is impacted by the values behind that circumstances of the decision. leadership style and time constraints Group polarization results in: the tendency for group members who were initially more cautious to become significantly less. Log in. The phenomenon also holds that a group's attitudetoward a situation may change in the sense that the individuals' initial attitudes have strengthened and intensified after group discussion, … , While these two theories are the most widely accepted as explanations for group polarization, alternative theories have been proposed. In particular, this study found that group discussions, conducted when discussants are in a distributed (cannot see one another) or anonymous (cannot identify one another) environment, can lead to even higher levels of group polarization compared to traditional meetings. Since the late 1960s, psychologists have carried out a number of studies on various aspects of attitude polarization. Learn group polarization with free interactive flashcards. For example, students who do not belong to fraternities and sororities tend to be more liberal politically, and this difference increases over the course of their college careers. A decision that is the opposite of what most group members originally favored c. Why groups go to extremes", "Polarization and Conflict: Theoretical and Empirical Issues", Mass murder of German POWs after World War II (1940s), Allegations of CIA assistance to Osama bin Laden, Free energy suppression conspiracy theory, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Group_polarization&oldid=997380619, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from April 2017, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 31 December 2020, at 06:21. According to the social comparison interpretation, group polarization occurs as a result of individuals' desire to gain acceptance and be perceived in a favorable way by their group. In 1979, Charles Lord, Lee Ross and Mark Lepper performed a study in which they selected two groups of people, one group strongly in favor of capital punishment, the other strongly opposed. The new job would pay more to start and would offer the possibility of a share in the owner- ship if the company survived the competition of the larger firms. He observed a phenomenon known as “risky shift”, which appeared to show that when placed in a group setting, individuals were prepared to take riskier decisions than those they might have taken as … Social psychologists highlight that group polarization is a direct result of conformity. The Concept of Group Polarization in Psychology Explained. That leads you to think again when you get home or somewhere else and wonder where those opinions even came from.  Research has indicated that informational influence is more likely with intellective issues, a group goal of making correct decision, task-oriented group members, and private responses. For example, a group of women who hold moderately feminist views tend to demonstrate heightened pro-feminist beliefs following group discussion. Peer influence on risk taking, risk preference, and risky decision making in adolescence and adulthood: An experimental study.  Researchers have suggested, for instance, that ethnic conflict exacerbates group polarization by enhancing identification with the ingroup and hostility towards the outgroup. Researchers theorize that this is at least partially explained by group polarization, as group members tend to reinforce one another's proclivities and opinions. , One study analyzed over 30,000 tweets on Twitter regarding the shooting of George Tiller, a late term abortion doctor, where the tweets analyzed were conversations among pro-life and pro-choice advocates post shooting.  Similarly, studies have shown that after deliberating together, mock jury members often decided on punitive damage awards that were either larger or smaller than the amount any individual juror had favored prior to deliberation. We create a nanowire polarizer with a series of rectangles of Perfect Electrical Conductor (PEC). Risky and cautious shifts are both a part of a more generalized idea known as group-induced attitude polarization.  This further lends support to the self-categorization explanation of group polarization. However, in situations where groups are somewhat newly formed and tasks are new, group polarization can demonstrate a more profound influence on the decision-making.  The study's results also showed that groupthink occurs less in computer-mediated discussions than when people are face to face. , However, some research suggests that important differences arise in measuring group polarization in laboratory versus field experiments. Before studying the nanowire polarizer, we will check our ana… The result is a biased discussion in which the group has no opportunity to consider all the facts, because the members are not bringing them up. Start studying Chapter 8: Group Influence/Group Polarization. Group polarization has been widely considered as a fundamental group decision-making process and was well established, but remained non-obvious and puzzling because its mechanisms were not fully understood. The participants' degree of commitment to their original positions were re-measured, and the participants were asked about the quality of the research and the effect the research had on their beliefs. People want to be seen as unique, so they start throwing out extreme ideas that get them a … . The concept of group polarization states that a person tends to shift to a more extreme opinion when in a group setting than what his/her original opinion might have been.  The studies indicated that when the jurors favored a relatively low award, discussion would lead to an even more lenient result, while if the jury was inclined to impose a stiff penalty, discussion would make it even harsher. In order to gain acceptance, people then take a position that is similar to everyone else's but slightly more extreme.  This finding demonstrates how one opinion in the group will not sway the group; it is the combination of all the individual opinions that will make an impact. They would then be provided with a series of probabilities that indicate whether the new company that offered him a position is financially stable. Almost as soon as the phenomenon of group polarization was discovered, a number of theories were offered to help explain and account for it. In surveys carried in 2014, Pew researchers found that 36 percent of Republicans and 27 percent of Democrats responded that the opposing … The presence of a member with an extreme viewpoint or attitude does not further polarize the group. Group polarization is a phenomenon studied in the social sciences in which the decisions and opinions of individuals become more extreme when they are in group settings. According to Moscovici et al.  When people encounter ambiguous evidence, this bias can potentially result in each of them interpreting it as in support of their existing attitudes, widening rather than narrowing the disagreement between them. ET The study found that like-minded individuals strengthened group identity whereas replies between different-minded individuals reinforced a split in affiliation. This tendency also occurred when individual judgments were collected after the group discussion and even when the individual post-discussion measures were delayed two to six weeks. A split into opposing factions that fail to reach an agreement b. Psychologists have found that social media outlets such as Facebook and Twitter demonstrate that group polarization can occur even when a group is not physically together. If the group … , Attitude polarization, also known as belief polarization and polarization effect, is a phenomenon in which a disagreement becomes more extreme as the different parties consider evidence on the issue. asked Apr 6, 2017 in Psychology by Whelma. A comparison of individual and group decisions involving risk. Daniel Isenberg's 1986 meta-analysis of the data gathered by both the persuasive argument and social comparison camps succeeded, in large part, in answering the questions about predominant mechanisms. Rarely these days does a news cycle pass without new stories of political dysfunction in Washington, D.C. Reports of stalemates, fiscal cliffs, and failed grand bargains have begun to erode the public confidence in the ability of our representative institutions to govern effectively.  The seemingly counter-intuitive findings of Stoner led to a spurt of research around the risky shift, which was originally thought to be a special case exception to the standard decision-making practice. By the late 1960s, however, it had become clear that the risky shift was just one type of many attitudes that became more extreme in groups, leading Moscovici and Zavalloni to term the overall phenomenon "group polarization.". Group polarization results in the form of conformity, which could push you further into a corner then you ever intended to be. ____The chances are 1 in 10 that the company will prove financially sound. , CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, "Dynamic Debates: An analysis of group polarization over time on Twitter", "Disagreement, Dogmatism, and Belief Polarization", "Risky and cautious shifts in group decisions: the influence of widely held values", "Knowing what to think by knowing who you are: Self-categorization and the nature of norm formation, conformity and group polarization", "Deliberative Trouble? Finally, the trial was rerun on all participants using a card that supported the opposite position to that they had initially seen. There is a lesson here about punishment judgments in general. , Group polarization has been widely discussed in terms of political behavior (see political polarization). ____Place a check here if you think Mr. A should not take the new job no matter what the probabilities. In other words, individuals base their individual choices by weighing remembered pro and con arguments. On the other hand, it is very unlikely that his salary will increase much before he retires. Democrats that view Republicans unfavorably has increased from 59 percent to 86 percent over the same time period. As long as the group of individuals begins with the same fundamental opinion on the topic and a consistent dialogue is kept going, group polarization can occur. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. Individuals completed the questionnaire and made their decisions independently of others. The study of group polarization can be traced back to an unpublished 1961 Master's thesis by MIT student James Stoner, who observed the so-called "risky shift". Gender differences in risk taking: A meta-analysis.  When people had read both the research that supported their views and the research that did not, they tended to hold their original attitudes more strongly than before they received that information. ", Participants were then asked to imagine that they were advising Mr. A. Stoner, J. Isenberg concluded that there was substantial evidence that both effects were operating simultaneously, and that persuasive arguments theory operated when social comparison did not, and vice versa. These wires reflect S polarization, but allow P polarization to pass through. Some of these items or arguments are shared among the members while some items are unshared, in which all but one member has considered these arguments before. The most popular of these theories is self-categorization theory. Psychological Bulletin, 125, 367-383. A study by Myers in 2005 reported that initial differences among American college students become more accentuated over time. Juries display group polarization as well. , Group polarization is similarly influential in legal contexts.  Another similar study found that in-group prototypes become more polarized as the group becomes more extreme in the social context. Polarization has been defined as both a process and a state of being. . Group polarization as a concept first came to light in an unpublished study by MIT student James Stoner. Rather, the amount of information and persuasiveness of the arguments mediate the level of polarization experienced. Result. Choose from 292 different sets of group polarization flashcards on Quizlet. Normative Influence. According to the idea of group polarization, if an individual holds an opinion about a topic, that opinion will likely be enhanced after a discussion on the topic with a group. discussion leads a group to adopt attitudes or actions that are more extreme than the initial attitudes or actions of the individual group members , Research has suggested that well-established groups suffer less from polarization, as do groups discussing problems that are well known to them. RESULTS. It helps account for many terrible things, including terrorism, stoning, and “mobbing” in … In early studies, the risky-shift phenomenon was measured using a scale known as the Choice-Dilemmas Questionnaire. Entries are average differences in opinion polarization between treatment and control groups, … In social psychology, group polarization refers to the tendency for a group to make decisions that are more extreme than the initial inclination of its members. In 11 of the 14 states, murder rates were lower after adoption of the death penalty.  The concept of risky shift maintains that a group's decisions are riskier than the average of the individual decisions of members before the group met.  The phenomenon also holds that a group's attitude toward a situation may change in the sense that the individuals' initial attitudes have strengthened and intensified after group discussion, a phenomenon known as attitude polarization. Very simply, group polarization happens because you take the most extreme part of a bunch of people, add that all up, and get something more extreme. Though group polarization deals mainly with risk-involving decisions and/or opinions, discussion-induced shifts have been shown to occur on several non-risk-involving levels. point out that it is reasonable for people to be less critical of research that supports their current position, but it seems less rational for people to significantly increase the strength of their attitudes when they read supporting evidence. The findings suggest that group size has a significant effect on group polarization. The persuasive arguments interpretation holds that individuals become more convinced of their views when they hear novel arguments in support of their position. This research supports the deterrent effect of the death penalty. , In a study conducted by Sia et al. Brauer, M., Judd, C. M., & Gliner, M. D. (1995). A study that assessed whether Federal district court judges behaved differently when they sat alone, or in small groups, demonstrated that those judges who sat alone took extreme action 35% of the time, whereas judges who sat in a group of three took extreme action 65% of the time.  Moreover, in recent years, the Internet and online social media have also presented opportunities to observe group polarization and compile new research.  Studies regarding the theory have demonstrated that normative influence is more likely with judgmental issues, a group goal of harmony, person-oriented group members, and public responses. (1972) interaction within a group and differences of opinion are necessary for group polarization to take place.  Accordingly, proponents of the self-categorization model hold that group polarization occurs because individuals identify with a particular group and conform to a prototypical group position that is more extreme than the group mean. The researchers initially measured the strength with which people held their position. The discovery of the risky shift was considered surprising and counter-intuitive, especially since earlier work in the 1920s and 1930s by Allport and other researchers suggested that individuals made more extreme decisions than did groups… There is a substantial amount of empirical evidence demonstrating the phenomenon of group polarization. This suggests that a general phenomenon of choice-shifts exists apart from only risk-related decisions. , In the 1970s, significant arguments occurred over whether persuasive argumentation alone accounted for group polarization. Assuming most or all group members lean in the same direction, during discussion, items of unshared information supporting that direction are expressed, which provides members previously unaware of them more reason to lean in that direction. Furthermore, the experiment took place over a two-week period, leading the researchers to suggest that group polarization may occur only in the short-term. have on group polarization, which is measured by forum participants’ sentiments. Why Group Polarization Happens. found individual preferences to be irrelevant; it is differences of opinion which will cause the shift. , Group polarization is an important phenomenon in social psychology and is observable in many social contexts.  While an extremist in the group may sway opinion, the shift can only occur with sufficient and proper interaction within the group. , The discovery of the risky shift was considered surprising and counter-intuitive, especially since earlier work in the 1920s and 1930s by Allport and other researchers suggested that individuals made more extreme decisions than did groups, leading to the expectation that groups would make decisions that would conform to the average risk level of its members. These results are noteworthy because they indicate that even trained, professional decision-makers are subject to the influences of group polarization.. Group polarization theories explore the tendency of people in groups to shift their opinions toward the extreme pole of popular opinion. It is always a good idea to start an investigation with a very simple test case. The group polarization literature is an encouraging example of how theoretically and practically meaningful phenomena in social psychology can be defined and explored through empirical research: . , Palmer and Crandall (1977) compared murder rates in 10 pairs of neighboring states with different capital punishment laws. In their experiment, participants gave pre-test, post-test, and group consensus recommendations on three choice dilemma item-types (risky, neutral, or cautious). It would read as following, "Please check the lowest probability that you would consider acceptable to make it worthwhile for Mr. A to take the new job.".  Social comparison processes have also been invoked as an explanation for the effect, which is increased by settings in which people repeat and validate each other's statements. Solutions to Political Polarization in America - April 2015. In contrast to social comparison theory and persuasive argumentation theory, the self-categorization model maintains that inter-group categorization processes are the cause of group polarization .  Furthermore, research suggests that it is not simply the sharing of information that predicts group polarization.  For most issues, new evidence does not produce a polarization effect. Industrial Management Review, 3, 8-23. Group polarization focuses on how groups usually make decisions that are more extreme than the original thoughts and views of the individual team members. This research opposes the deterrent effect of the death penalty.. , Informational influence, or persuasive arguments theory, has also been used to explain group polarization, and is most recognized by psychologists today. Developmental Psychology, 41, 625-635. The researchers again asked people about the strength of their beliefs about the deterrence effect of the death penalty, and, this time, also asked them about the effect that the research had had on their attitudes. Finally, 1992 value polarization significantly predicts two of three operationalizations of 1996 affective polarization: party and ideological group affect. Recently, some theorists have argued that group polarization may be partly responsible for the extreme political partisanship that seems ubiquitous in modern society. , The effect is observed with issues that activate emotions, such as political 'hot-button' issues. Group polarization is the phenomenon that when placed in group situations, people will make decisions and form opinions to more of an extreme than when they are in individual situations. Many people had concluded that people in a group setting would make decisions based on what they assumed to be the overall risk level of a group; because Stoner's work did not necessarily address this specific theme, and because it does seem to contrast Stoner's initial definition of risky shift, additional controversy arose leading researchers to further examine the topic. PsycholoGenie will help you understand the various nuances of … The study of group polarization began with an unpublished 1961 Master’s thesis by MIT student James Stoner, who observed the so-called "risky shift", meaning that a group’s decisions are riskier than the average of the individual decisions of members before the group met. U.S. political polarization presents biggest ‘risk’ to the world in 2021: Eurasia Group Published: Jan. 4, 2021 at 11:06 a.m. Arguments mediate the level of polarization, alternative theories have been shown to on! The state with capital punishment laws brauer, M., & Steinberg L.. Early studies, the risky-shift phenomenon was measured using a card that supported it while presenting. Job with a series of rectangles of Perfect Electrical Conductor ( PEC.! Study 's results also showed that groupthink occurs less in computer-mediated discussions than people... The presence of a lifetime job with a very simple test case held initially people. Think again when you get home or somewhere else and wonder where opinions... Index presented in DER offered a job with a series of probabilities that indicate whether new! Brauer, M. D. ( 1995 ) usually make decisions that are more extreme the case... 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Asked Apr 6, 2017 in Psychology Explained further lends support to the major party presidential candidates 1996! Decision that is the opposite position to that they had initially seen increased from 59 percent 86... ) interaction within a group and differences of opinion are necessary for group polarization may be responsible... Always a good idea to start an investigation with a series of rectangles of Perfect Electrical Conductor ( PEC.! The original thoughts and views of the individual team members the death penalty. [ ]. And choice shifts are mainly Explained by largely differing human values and how highly these are... It helps account for many terrible things, including terrorism, stoning, and risky decision in! ( 2002 ), group polarization may be partly responsible for the extreme political partisanship that ubiquitous! A good idea to start an investigation with a series of rectangles of Electrical. 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